Let him who is convinced that his views are true and right express them . . . at every opportunity . . . without considering how much support or how much opposition he will encounter. Only falsehood is in need of many supporters in order to win the day; falsehood must have the authority of numbers to make up for what it lacks in justification. Truth, by contrast, will always prevail, even if it takes time. Noble, courageous and pure, expressed with all the fiery zeal and conviction and with all clarity of sure awareness, stated again and again at every opportunity, truth will ultimately gain respect and admiration even of those who do not accept it. The only truth that can be lost beyond recall is that truth whose adherents no longer have the courage to speak up candidly on its behalf. Truth has never gone down in defeat as the result of opposition, it has done so only when its friends are too weak to defend it. - R' S.R. Hirsch

Tuesday, May 10, 2016

Stricken, Smitten of G-d, Afflicted


G-d spoke to Moshe saying: this shall be the matter of the Metzora on the day of his purification: he shall be brought before the Kohen.  The Kohen shall go out of the camp and see that indeed the afflicted one has been healed from the plague of tzara'at. The Kohen shall command that two clean living birds be brought for the individual undergoing purification, along with cedar wood, scarlet and hyssop.  The Kohen shall command that one of the birds be slaughtered, upon water from a living spring that has been gathered within an earthenware vessel.

He shall then take the (remaining) living bird, along with cedar wood, scarlet and hyssop, and he shall immerse them along with the living bird into the blood of the slaughtered bird that is upon the water from a living spring.  He shall then sprinkle seven times the one undergoing purification from tzara'at, and when he has purified him, he shall release the living bird into the wide open field…
(cf. Leviticus 14:1-7).

Thus begins Parashat Metzora, with a detailed account of the purification rites for one who has emerged from the condition of tzara'at and now waits to rejoin the community.  In many respects, these rites are particular to the metzora (or to the related situation of house tzara'at – (cf. Leviticus 14:33-57) but there are also a number of points of contact between these rites and those associated with other sufferers from various forms of tum'a (ritual uncleanness).


From the Mishna, Tractate Nega'im Chapter 14:

First of all, the Kohen must ascertain that the metzora has indeed been healed from his condition, much as the Kohen was responsible for initially declaring him tamei and causing his banishment from the community.  Then, while the metzora is still residing outside of the encampment of Israel, two birds are to be taken, of a tahor (fit for consumption) and undomesticated species.  Additionally, the Kohen must take a new earthenware vessel, and fill it with a small amount ("revi'it" – approximately 100-150 ml) of water drawn from a flowing spring. 

One of the birds is then slaughtered above the vessel, and its blood is drained into the waters.  The Kohen then takes the cedar wood, hyssop and a ribbon of wool dyed scarlet, and bundles them together, securing the grouping with part of the scarlet ribbon.  The living bird is brought together with the bundle, so that its wingtips, head and tail are all in contact with it, and then all of the items are ceremoniously immersed into the earthenware vessel.  The Kohen then sprinkles the liquid seven times upon the hands of the metzora, and then the living bird is released to its freedom.

Afterwards, of course, the metzora must follow the rest of the ritual as it is described later in our text: he must shave all of the visible concentrations of hair upon his body and immerse himself, before entering the confines of the camp. In this transitional stage, he may not have relations with his wife for a period of seven days. On the seventh day, he must again shave the hair of his body and immerse a second time, but he remains unfit to partake of sacrificial meats until the presentation of his offerings on the eighth day. 

These eighth day offerings consist of a sin offering, a burnt offering and a guilt offering, the attendant meal offering and a special presentation of oil.  The specific species for the offerings are adjusted in accordance with the financial state of the supplicant, and the exact ceremonial of the presentation that includes the placement of some of the blood and oil upon parts of his body is described in Leviticus 14:10-20.


What might the significance of these things?  Why must the metzora present two birds at the outset and why is one of them then set free?  What about the three species of cedar wood, scarlet and hyssop, as well as the need for the living waters of a free-flowing spring?  

We may begin our investigation by noting that at least in so far as the basic scheme is concerned, we have already encountered a similar ceremony.  Recall that as the people of Israel were poised to leave the land of Egypt and the plague of the firstborn was about to strike, G-d commanded the people to prepare the Pesach lamb.  This special sacrifice, a statement of Israel's trust in G-d as they took their first tentative step away from Egyptian polytheism, was to be slaughtered on the eve of the fourteenth day of Nissan.

The blood of the lamb was to be gathered into a receptacle and then smeared upon the lintel and doorposts of the Hebrew houses in order to ward off the destroyer from their households.  But the Torah specifies in that context that the people were to take "a bundle of hyssop and to dip it into the blood that is in the receptacle…" (cf. Exodus 12:22), thus providing us with a precedent for the purification rites of the metzora that also include a dipping of hyssop into a mixture of blood and spring water.

On the other hand, we also find a similar series of steps associated with the purification rites of one who had come into contact with a human corpse.  As spelled out in Parashat Chukat ( cf. Numbers  19), corpse tum'a can only be relieved by the puzzling ceremony of the para aduma or red heifer.  In this scenario, a perfectly red-haired cow that had never been utilized to draw the plow, is slaughtered beyond the confines of the camp.

Its body is then completely incinerated in a specially prepared bonfire, and the ashes are then carefully gathered.  These ashes are subsequently mixed as needed into a vessel containing spring water (living waters), and the Kohen then takes a bundle of hyssop, dips it into the mixture and sprinkles it upon the tamei individual on the third and seventh day.  After the sprinkling of the seventh day, the person immerses himself in a mikvah and after nightfall is tahor, clean.


In all three situations, a liquid that is either exclusively blood or else at least includes it as a main ingredient, is first gathered into some sort of receptacle, typically earthenware.  A bundle of organic material that includes hyssop is next dipped into the liquid and some sort of sprinkling or smearing is then done with it.  Afterwards, the status of the afflicted individual is transformed.  Interestingly, Rabbi Avraham Ibn Ezra not only links the various ceremonies together, but maintains that the paradigm for them all is the Pesach sacrifice of Exodus Chapter 12:

Behold, the purification rites of the metzora, the house stricken with tzara'at, and the individual who has come into contact with a human corpse are all similar.  Behold all of them are modeled after the Passover sacrifice in Egypt (commentary to Leviticus 14:4).


In more general terms, when considering the experience of Egypt, one may speak of exile and redemption.   They were not only far from their land and their familiar landscape, but from their G-d as well. In Egypt, Israel fell prey to self-alienation, becoming estranged from their mission and destiny in the world (cf. Ezekiel 20).

The metzora as well, stricken with a condition that our Sages maintain is a consequence of spiritual deficiency, is banished from the camp.  In effect, he too must suffer the estrangement of "exile" as he ponders his sorry state and begins the process of spiritual repair.  How he pines for restoration to his family and community, eagerly anticipating the day when the Kohen will pronounce him fit!

Though he too may succumb to temporary despair, the memory of his former life will sustain him until he is remembered by others in turn.  As that day finally dawns, he too takes the ritual objects of the Exodus from Egypt, the blood and the hyssop, and marks the moment of his self-transformation, before he begins the arduous process of returning to the camp in complete form.


Any man who has come into contact with a human corpse is unfit to stand before G-d.  The Mishkan as the place of experiencing G-d's presence is the source of all life and, as such, represents our ultimate destination; tum'a is the antithesis of those things.  We do not blame the human being for being mortal, but we protest against the state of death that our moral choices have introduced into the world.  While in a state of tum'a, we suffer spiritual estrangement and experience a form of exile, exile from life and from vitality.

When we are ready to emerge from that state to once again stand in the presence of G-d, we prepare by undergoing the rites associated with the red heifer.  Once again, a mixture of living waters and ashes, life and death, is sprinkled upon the individual with the aid of the organic hyssop, a tenacious plant that thrives in even the most arid and ashen environments.  Thus, the threshold of experience is once again marked by the taking of these items that mark the passage from death to life, as the tamei person transcends morbidity to once again secure life.

Though we tend to associate blood with death, the rites of the Passover and the metzora relate it to life, to the organic life force that is bound up with the oxygenated sanguine cells.  The living waters, drawn from a flowing spring, are also symbols of life, for where there is water there is vitality.  We may of course also relate the Passover and the red heifer to the metzora. The two birds, presumably, signify the two antithetical states and the emergence from the one to the other.

Thus, the Mishna (cf. tractate Nega'im 14:5) relates that at the outset, they must be equivalent in appearance, size and value.  And they must be of an undomesticated species in order to emphasize the vital spark that animates and invigorates.  At the conclusion of the first stage of the ceremony, the live bird is set free into an open space, "the field", signifying the metzora's re-emergence and rebirth into a state of pristine potential.

The three situations, then, the slave in bondage in Egypt, the metzora banished from the camp, and the person who has experienced death, all share a common fundamental link.  All have experienced, in one form or another, the sting and the stupor of mortality, whether physical and real, or spiritual and no less real.


The pictures of the Messiah, the latter Redeemer couldn't be clearer.  Two doves are used in the cleansing ritual.  The doves must be perfectly identical to one another in every detail so that one cannot tell them apart.  One of the birds is slaughtered over and earthen vessel, a vessel that contains living water.  And so one of the birds is killed and it's blood is shed and mixed with living water.  The live bird is then tied with a scarlet thread to the woody hyssop plant, wings outstretched and dipped into the vessel containing the blood and living water.  The metzora is sprinkled with the blood and water and declared clean as a result.  The live bird is then released into an open field.

Did the Messiah not urge the thirsty to come unto Him and drink of living waters that would result in eternal life?  Did the Messiah, in the form of an earthen vessel, not shed His blood after being stretched out upon a tree, and did not blood and water flow when the Roman soldier later pierced His side when they came to remove His body from the tree?  The Messiah, as represented in the two identical doves considered to be one bird, died, sprinkling the sinner with His blood, and like the bird that was released into the field, conquered death and rose victorious three days after His death to set all who would place their faith and trust in Him free.

We, like the metzora, who have been afflicted with the stain of sin and covered with the shadow of death have been cleansed, purified, and brought near again, restored back into a proper relationship with the G-d Whom we had so grievously offended.   Some of the Sages liken the process of the cleansing of the metzorah to being born again.  The metzorah shaves his body completely, immerses himself in a mikveh (Jewish ritual bath) and emerges from the process much like a newborn babe into the world, born from above, as it were.

We all like sheep have turned to his own way and gone astray.  We are all afflicted with the tzara'at of sin and death.  Interestingly enough the Torah tells us that once we are completely covered from head to toe with tzara'at that the priest declares us clean.  How can that be?  The lesson is clear: it is only when we acknowledge our complete sinfulness and unworthiness that the process of cleansing can begin.  As long as we are pointing to the clean spots and patches here and there we remain unclean and banished outside the camp.  There is no one who has not sinned, no not one.

And so the latter Redeemer, Y'shua the Messiah, the Great High Priest, was able to achieve what no earthly priest ever could: offered himself without spot to G-d, to purge our consciences from dead works to serve the living G-d, for the Messiah came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation.  Not with the blood of goats and calves, but with His own blood He entered the Most Holy Place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption.  (cf. Hebrews 9).

*I am indebted to Rabbi Michael Hattin for providing the insights into the connections between the metzorah and the Passover.   

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